Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Margaret Hook, mother of Thomas Hughan's two daughters

At last... after years of pondering the mystery of who was the mother of Thomas Hughan's two natural daughters, Jane and Margaret, the answer has presented itself in a batch of newly released Jamaican church records.
   I was correct in my  theory that the girls were born in Jamaica during Thomas's time there, and that their mother was of coloured ancestry. The baptism entry of the first daughter of Thomas Hughan and Margaret Hook ( below) reads "Baptisms in Kingston 1793. Jane, the daughter of Margaret Hook, a quadroon woman, by Thomas Hughan, was born 14th April, 1792, and baptised 23rd June, 1793."

The following year, when younger daughter Margaret Hughan was baptised, Margaret Hook was described in the church record as being "a free mulatto woman".

When son Thomas Hughan was baptised in 1797, no reference was made to the racial origins of Margaret Hook...he was simply 'the son of Margaret Hook by Thomas Hughan'.  No further trace has been found of this child, so it must be assumed that he died at a young age.                                         

By definition, a 'mulatto' was an individual who had one black parent and one white parent. A 'quadroon' was the child of a mulatto parent and a white parent.
  Margaret Hook's father was a white merchant, Duncan Hook, whose relationship with a mulatto woman, Elizabeth Duncan, resulted in a family of three daughters and four sons. Duncan had to have a special Act of Assembly passed to give his mistress and their children the same legal status as English subjects in Jamaica. It was granted on 21st of December, 1776:

"An Act to entitle Elizabeth Duncan, of the parish of St Elizabeth, in the county of Cornwall, and island of Jamaica, a free mulatto woman, and Elizabeth Hook, Mary Hook, Margaret Hook, Henry Hook, William Hook, Thomas Hook, and John Hook, the reputed children of Duncan Hook, merchant, by the said Elizabeth Duncan, to the same rights and privileges with English subjects, under certain restrictions."

This also allowed Elizabeth Duncan and four of the Hook children to be buried in St John's Parish Church yard, St Elizabeth parish, Cornwall, Jamaica, with their husband and father Duncan Hook.

Above: The baptismal entry for the baptisms of Margaret and William Hook, children of Duncan Hook and Elizabeth Duncan. Elizabeth Duncan was also baptised on the same day, and it was noted that she was aged " about 26 years". 
Above: Baptisms of Thomas and John Hook, sons of Duncan Hook & Elizabeth Duncan.
Above: Baptism of Charles Hook, son of Duncan Hook & Elizabeth Duncan.
DUNCAN HOOK, MERCHANT.              
Henry Hook was the father of Duncan Hook. He was a small-scale manufacturer who lived in Scotland in the 1700s. His five sons all left Scotland to pursue their fortunes:- John ( born 1745) went to Virginia in 1758 as a 13 year old, apprenticed as a shopkeeper and clerk. Three sons, including Duncan and Charles, went to Jamaica, and another joined the East India Company. The five Hook boys were all well-educated and filled with the desire to earn their fortunes and return to Scotland to live comfortably.
Above: Marriage of Duncan Hook and Isabel Duncan, 1737,parish of Queensferry, West Lothian.
The following was taken from "Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory and Civic Culture", edited by Jan Lewis and Peter S Onuf:
"In the islands, masters openly lived in unions with slave women and often provided for their mulatto children. In Edward Long's condemnatory words, white men tended to "riot in goatish embraces". Black concubinage was part of the fabric of the social landscape. The magnitude of the difference between mainland and island is captured in Virginian merchant John Hook's ruminations about his brother, Duncan, then resident in Jamaica. In a 1779 letter, John writes metaphorically of Duncan's fall from grace, a "blot" on his "escutcheon" of a "ship wreck" that is "not only disgraceful but in time will be a bitter sting to all those gentlemen who forms such connection." The practice of establishing an interracial family is "too fashionable in Jamaica" he continues "and is held in deserved contempt universally through this continent". Despite his strong feelings, however, he will not press the issue with Duncan from "motives of delicacy", not meaning to "upbraid or insult his weakness." He is aware of the predicament of a man rearing a family "of whom he is ashamed" and yet "where his affections undoubtedly is placed". The ties of nature "binds mankind", John knows, "in spite of every effort to the contrary". But, he declares, any man with "a single spark of sensibility" will forever rest uneasy, thinking "how much better it would have been for him to have married a white woman."
Thomas Hughan, upon his return to England, was never made suffer socially by the existence of his two illegitimate daughters. He was elected to parliament, and made an excellent marriage to the daughter of a wealthy business acquaintance. His daughters, Jane and Margaret, resided in Scotland rather than with him in London, but their existence was certainly not hidden from society.
18th century almanacs for Jamaica reveal that Thomas Hughan held some important positions during his stay on the islands :
1790 Almanac: Militia of Jamaica Foot. St Elizabeth's Regiment. Westmoreland Regiment: Ensigns:...Thomas Hughan....
Royal Gazette, November 22, 1794, Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies: The following gentlemen have been sworn into the commission of the peace for this parish:  ...Thomas Hughan...
1796 Almanac Jamaica Lists: Magistrates for Surry, Kingston.Assistant Judges: Thomas Hughan (one named of fifteen)
Fire-Wardens: Thomas Hughan (vice-president)
Wolmer's Free School (established May 21, 1729): Thomas Hughan one of the trustees.
1799 Almanac Surry. Magistrates for Surry, Kingston...Thomas Hughan.......

Of the Hook family, the following is known:
Elizabeth Hook: raised a family of children with merchant William Bawn:
William Bawn was a slave owner...the document below reveals that in 1817 he owned 15 male slaves aged between 60 and 2 years, and three female slaves aged 30, 35 and 40.

Above: From 'Monumental Inscriptions of Jamaica' by Philip Wright.
The death of Thomas Hughan's mistress Margaret Hook has not been located in either Jamaica, Scotland or England, so it is unsure what became of her. Thomas was back in England by about 1797- his daughter Jane would have been aged about five, and Margaret about three.
  It was quite common for Englishmen to bring their natural-born children- particularly sons- back to England when they quit the West Indies for whatever reasons. It is not known when Thomas Hughan's daughters left Jamaica to take up residence in Scotland- probably with the Stirling sisters in Edinburgh who were cousins of their father.
   Neither Jane or Margaret Hughan lived past their twenties, and only Margaret married:
Above: Marriage of Margaret Hughan to James Spence, 30/06/1818, St Cuthbert’s, Edinburgh.
Above:  Burial of Margaret Hughan Spence, LEITH SOUTH, EDINBURGH CITY CITY/MIDLOTHIAN
NOTE: Margaret's age was given as 21 in the burial register. She was born on March 8, 1794 and died January 1819, and so would have been in her 25th year at the time of her death. She had been married for only six months when she died of "decline". She wrote a will in which she left about 4,500 pounds to her husband James Spence.
  I still have not been able to locate the burial record of elder sister, Jane Hughan. She died between writing her will on May 3, 1817, and July 29, 1817, which was the date her will was proved. Like her sister Margaret, Jane also died in her 25th year.
  Jane's will was much shorter than her sister's, but more interesting in that she left the following bequests:
To the Miss Stirlings the sum of 100 pounds
To Jane ____ath now Mrs Reid 10 pounds
All I possess to my beloved sister
Should I be the survivor I then leave 1000 pounds, my books, clothes ect to the Miss Stirlings
To my dear aunt 1000 pounds
The remainder of my money to Thomas Hughan.





Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Another William Hughan, Soldier.

The New South Wales Police Gazette from late 1850 carried a notice for the desertion of a soldier from the 11th regiment of Infantry. His details were as follows:

Man's Name: William Hughan
Age: 20 years and 10 months
Size: 5 feet 9 inches
Fresh complexion
Grey hair, dark brown eyes
Time of desertion:1 October, 1850
Place of desertion: Sydney NSW
Date of Enlistment:3 May, 1848
Place: Liverpool, Lancashire, West Derby.
Marks" W:H on right arm.
Trade: labourer
Jacket: regimental
Breeches or trousers: regimental
-W.K Bloomfield, Lt. Col 11th Regiment. "

There was no other mention of this William Hughan, so presumably he was returned to his Regiment without further drama.
From the Police Gazette information, we can see that this William was born c. late 1829-early 1830. He should therefore appear on the 1841 census return for either England or Scotland. I will be returning to do further investigation on this Hughan soldier in the near future.

Thursday, July 1, 2010

William Hughan's Army Record

Above is William Hughan's army service record as supplied by The National Archives, U.K. It shows that he served with the 19th Regiment of Foot (the Green Howards) from April 3, 1796 until May 24, 1811 (a period of 14 years and 356 days), although a note in pencil on the bottom of the page states " claims service from February 7, 1793". William transferred from the 19th Foot to the 12th Veterans and served with them from 1811 to 1814, a period of 3 years 91 days.

Timeline of Service by the 19th Regiment of Foot (the Green Gordons)
1793 Flanders
1793 England
1794 Flanders
1795 England
1795.08 France: Brittany
1795.08 England
1796 India: Madras
1799 Mysore war
1800? Ceylon
1803 Kandian war
1803 Ceylon
1809.01 Travancore rebellion
1809.02 India
1810.12 Mauritius (4 coys)
1811? Ceylon?

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

William Hughan, soldier, and Elizabeth Brown

I had noticed in the 1841 census for Creetown an old soldier by the name of William Hughan, who was 70 years old and an 'Army P', meaning 'army pensioner'. He was living with two younger Hughans, John and Elizabeth, presumably his children or even grandchildren.
It was not until I was chasing another William Hughan that the pieces of the soldier Hughan puzzle began to fall into place, and I discovered the identity of both Williams.
I had spotted the younger William Hughan in census returns for 1841,1861 and 1871 when he appeared to be working for, but not a member of, Peter Hughan's family as the latter farmed firstly at Meiklecarse and then Cults.
He also signed Peter Hughan's will as a witness on February 26,1876, being described as "William Hughan, Dairyman, residing at Cults". He was obviously related in some way to the Hughans of Cults Farm, but how?
Various census returns gave William Hughan's year of birth as between 1816 and 1821, and his place of birth as Creetown or Kirkmabreck. Perusal of the Kirkmabreck parish baptismal records for that period have only one contender for this William Hughan:
11 July, 1816: William Hughan and Betty Brown, Balhasie, a son William.

The location of 'Balhasie' also struck a cord, as this was the location where Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie, parents of Peter Hughan of Cults, were situated.It is quite feasible that Samuel Hughan and William Hughan Senior were brothers- Samuel was born c. 1768, William Senior c. 1771, and both associated with Balhasie. Unfortunately, neither appear in the Kirkmabreck records. A tantalising snippet of a book online shows a tiny portion of the ancestry of a family that includes Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie. The only part of the family tree visible is "Samuel Hughan born March 1, 1838, son of Peter Hughan(1804-1877), who was the son of Samuel Hughan (1767-1835) who was the son of William Hughan of Scotland."
I would love to know more...such as where the information came from that nominated a William Hughan as Samuel's father(and perhaps the father of soldier William!)

Assumptions aside, we know that William Hughan and Elizabeth "Betty" Brown had at least three more children other than William. Their issue was:
William Hughan baptised 11/07/1816, parents in Balhasie.
Elizabeth Hughan baptised December 20, 1817, parents in Balhasie.
John Hughan born August 15, 1824, Wigtown.
John Hughan baptised August 14, 1826, parents in Balhasie.

John born 1824 must have died in infancy for John born 1826 to have acquired his name.

Elizabeth Brown Hughan, I believe, was the Elizabeth Hughan who was buried in Creetown Kirkyard on August 21, 1840, aged 57. This puts her date of birth as c. 1783, which is well within the range for a mother having children 1816-1826.

Her husband, William Hughan, was still alive for the 1841 census:
St John's Street, Creetown.
William Hughan/ 70/ Army P/ born in Kirkcudbrightshire
Elizabeth Hughan/20/born Kirkcudbrightshire
John Hughan/15/ born Kirkcudbrightshire.

Yes...William, husband of Betty Brown and father of William of Meiklecarse and Cults Farms, was the mystery soldier! I have ordered his pensioner's discharge documents (Royal Hospital Kilmainham) from Documentsonline. In the meantime, a summary of his career is as follows:
"William Hughan. Born Kirkmabreck, Galway. Served 19th Foot Regiment; 12th Royal Veteran Battalion. Discharged aged 50."

I think Elizabeth Hughan, daughter of William Hughan and Elizabeth Brown, may have married James McLachlan in Kirkmabreck on September 9,1842. Both lived in the same street in Creetown in 1841. James was an apprentice joiner in 1841, and by 1851 he and his family were living in Balmaghie parish with his father John, who was also a joiner, and siblings Isabella and William. James McLachlan and Elizabeth Hughan had two sons in the 1851 census-William born c. 1846, England, and John born c. 1848, England.
Another link appears between the families of William Hughan the soldier and Samuel Hughan of Balhasie when it is discovered that the two McLachlan boys, William and James, were both born at East Stonehouse in 1845 and 1847. East Stonehouse is, of course, the town in Devon where the two sons of Samuel Hughan - Peter and William- established themselves..Peter for a short while, and William for many years.

Of John Hughan, son of William Hughan and Elizabeth Brown, i have as yet found no trace.

William Hughan the Dairyman, son of William and Elizabeth, married Mary Butters on June 6, 1845, in Kirkmabreck. Mary was the daughter of Thomas Butters, carrier of Dunbeattie, and Mary Stewart. At the time of their marriage William was described as "greive of Meikle Carse", a greive being a steward or manager.This insinuates that he managed Meiklecarse Farm for Peter Hughan, and then later worked for him again when Peter had taken over the lease at Cults farm.

Following William Hughan through the census returns 1841 through 1891 we find:

1841: Meiklecarse, Minnigaff.
William Hughan/25/ ag lab/ born in Kirkcudbright

1851: Blair Street, Dunbeattie, Urr, Kirkcudbright.
William Hughan/head/33/carter/born Kirkmabreck
Mary Hughan/wife/domestic duties/born Urr, Kirkcudbright
Agness Hughan/daughter/5/scholar/born Kirkmabreck
William Hughan/son/8 months/born Kirkmabreck.

1861: Cults Farm, Garlieston.
William Hughan/head/40/dairyman/born Kirkmabreck
Mary Hughan/wife/35/born Dalbeattie
Agnes Hughan/daughter/14/dairymaid/born Minnigaff
William Hughan/son/10/ scholar/ born Creetown.
Mary Anne Hughan/daughter/7/ born Sorbie
James B. Hughan/son/3/ born Sorbie.

1871: Cults Dairy, Garlieston.
William Hughan/head/50/dairyman/born Creetown
Mary Hughan/wife/46/dairyman's wife/born Dalbeattie
William Hughan/son/20/farm servant/born Kirkcudbright
Mary Ann Hughan/daughter/ 17/dairymaid/born Sorbie
James Hughan/son/13/scholar/born Sorbie
Eliza McCluggan/30/domestic servant/born Ireland.

1881: 301 High Street, Dalbeattie, Urr.
William Hughan/head/64/carter/born Creetown
Mary Hughan/wife/68/born Urr
William Hughan/son/30/carter/born Creetown.

1891: 301 High Street, Dalbeattie, Urr.
William Hughan/head/76/ retired carter/ born Kirkmabreck
Mary Hughan/wife/68/born Urr
James Hughan/son/32/tea merchant/born Sorbie
William Butters/brother-in-law/66/stone cutter retired

A chance reference to a book on the Butters family Genealogy, published in the U.S in the late 1890s, allowed me to gain more information on the family of Mary Butters and William Hughan that I would never have discovered using census returns alone:

" MARY BUTTERS: Born in Dalbeattie, Kirkcudbright, Scotland, daughter of Thomas Butters and Mary Stewart.Married in Minnigaff, Co. Wigtown, William, son of William and Elizabeth (Brown) HUYHAN (first time I have ever seen this spelling variation of Hughan!)of Creetown Kirkcudbright.
In the year 1853 they came to America, landing in New York, and resided with their uncle, William Butters, at 61 Fulton Street. Mr. Huyhan obtained a position as coachman with Mr. Job Jackson, residing in Flatbush. After a stay of six months the family returned to Scotland, and in 1896 were living at 301 High Street, Dalbeattie.
Children: Agnes Huyhan born 1846
William Huyhan born 1850.
Mary Ann Huyhan born 1853
James Huyhan born 1857."

William Hughan, dairyman, died on June 3, 1898, at his home 301 High Street, Dalbeattie.He was 81 years old, and his son-in-law, William Sinclair, who registered his death, did not know the names of his parents.William Hughan's occupation was "Dairyman-retired. Married to Mary Butters."

Children of William Hughan and Mary Butters:
Agnes Jane Hughan: baptised April 25, 1846, Kirkmabreck. Married William Sinclair, 1865, Sorbie.William was a master cabinet maker and joiner. After their marriage they moved to Bootle in Lancashire where William worked as a ship joiner, and where their children Mary Ann, John, Elizabeth, William and James were born. Between 1876 and 1879, William moved his family back to Dalbeattie, where he ran his own cabinet making and joiners business in High Street. Children Agnes Jane, Jessie and Thomas Butters Sinclair were born in Dalbeattie in c. 1879, 1880 and 1883 respectively.
Agnes Hughan Sinclair died on September 26, 1883, at 128 High Street, Dalbeattie. She was 36 years of age, and died of "malignant disease of stomach, several years,haemorrhage of stomach,half an hour." Her parents were given as William Hughan, carter, and Mary Butters.
Her husband, William Sinclair, remarried a woman named Susan.

WILLIAM HUGHAN: baptised July 21, 1850, Kirkmabreck. Never married. Worked as a commercial traveller. Died May 3, 1918, at 301 High Street, Dalbeattie, of carcinoma of the stomach, aged 67. His brother, James B. Hughan, registered his brother's death.

MARY ANN HUGHAN: born c. 1854, Sorbie. Married police constable Robert Douglas on December 31, 1875, at Cults,Sorbie, aged 22. Mary Ann's parents were William Hughan, dairyman, and Mary Butters, and her usual residence was Cults, Sorbie.Mary Ann returned with Robert to Liverpool where he was a member of the police force. In 1881, the couple were living at 68 Troughton Street, West Derby, Liverpool, with two sons, William aged 4 and Robert aged 4 months, and Robert's widowed mother, 69 year old Catherine Douglas from Scotland.
The 1891 census finds the Douglas family at 46 Winifred Street, West Derby. Robert is now a 38 year old Police Sergeant, and while a daughter has been born- 8 year old Mary Ann- second son Robert is missing from the family home, perhaps having died in infancy. Eldest child, 14 year old William, is an apprentice printer and compositor.

The 1901 census reveals that Robert has moved up the promotional ladder again...he is now a Police Inspector.Son William is a compositor, and daughter Mary Ann aged 18 is living at home with no occupation, besides probably helping her mother Mary Ann to run the household at 93 Northbrook Street, Toxeth Park.

JAMES BUTTERS HUGHAN: born c. 1858, Sorbie. Died 1940, aged 82, at Dalbeattie.In the 1881 census, James was boarding with the Douglas family in West Derby, Mary Ann Douglas being his sister. His occupation was given as 'grocer's shopman', and he was 22 years old. In 1891 32 year old James was back in Scotland, living with his parents and working as a tea merchant.
The last trace of James Butter Hughan came in the 1901 census. He was living at 301 High Street,Dalbeattie ( his parents' residence before their deaths), and his occupation was 'merchant's clerk'. His 22 year old neice, Agnes Sinclair, was living with James as his housekeeper.
James Butters Hughan lived at 301 High Street Dalbeattie until his death on March 30, 1940. He never married, and was 82 years old when he died of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. His death was registered by his nephew, William Sinclair, who gave his parents as 'William Hughan,carter,(deceased) and Mary Butters'.

William Hughan, son of Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie.

Above: Entry from the Kirkmabreck Parish Register showing the baptism of William Hughan, son of Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie of Balhasie.
Top: William James Hughan, famous Freemason, whose father, William Hughan was from Kirkmabreck parish in Kirkcudbright. William James Hughan was first cousin, once removed, of Jessie Wallace Hughan of Brooklyn, New York.

William Hughan was baptised in Kirkmabreck Parish on 14 August, 1806, the second son born to Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie.
Like his brother Peter, William grew up on the Hughan farm at Balhasie, near Creetown, and then moved down into England as a young man. The brothers moved to Stonehouse, in Devonshire, where they were both drapers. Samuel moved back to Scotland several years after the death of his father in 1835, and resumed farming. William, however, remained in Stonehouse, where he married and raised a family of three sons and a daughter.

William Hughan married Margaret Chisholm in 1838, and their first child, Samuel Chisholm Hughan, was born the following year in 1839.
Another son, William James Hughan, followed in February of 1841, then Peter in 1844 and Mary Jessie in 1848.
Because William Hughan and his family lived in England, there are far fewer details to be had about their lives as compared to the family of his brother Peter, who resided mainly in Scotland and allowed me to use the excellent Scotlandspeople site to harvest wonderful information. Still, we can follow the Hughans of East Stonehouse through the census returns, and at least gather a glimpse of their lives:

1841: Union Street, East Stonehouse, Devon.
William Hughan/ 30/ draper/ born Scotland
Margaret Hughan/ 30/ born Scotland
Samuel C. Hughan/ 2/ born in county
William James Hughan/ 3 months/ born in County
Jane Evans/15/female servant

1851: Adelaide Street, East Stonehouse.
William Hughan/head/ 44/ draper/ born Scotland
Margaret Hughan/ wife/ 44/ born Scotland
Samuel Hughan/son/11/scholar/ born East Stonehouse
William Hughan/son/10/scholar/born East Stonehouse
Peter Hughan/son/6/scholar/ born East Stonehouse
Mary Hughan/daughter/2/born East Stonehouse.
Martha Pearce/servant/20/born Cornwall

1861: Emma Street, East Stonehouse
William Hughan/head/54/draper/born Scotland
Margaret Hughan/wife/53/born Scotland
Samuel C Hughan/son/21/assistant/born Stonehouse
William J Hughan/son/20/drapery warehouseman/born Stonehouse
Peter Hughan/16/son/ chemist's apprentice/ born Stonehouse
Mary Hughan/ daughter/12/scholar/born Stonehouse
Elizabeth Jewell/servant/17/ general servant/born Bristol

1871: Emma Street, East Stonehouse.
William Hughan/head/64/draper/born Scotland
Margaret Hughan/wife/63/born Scotland
Samuel Hughan/son/31/unmarried/draper assistant/born E. Stonehouse
Jane Andrews/servant/unmarried/20/general servant/born Devonport.

1881: 18 Emma Place, East Stonehouse.
William Hughan/head/74/draper/born Kirkcudbright, Scotland
Margaret Hughan/wife/73/ born Kirkcudbright, Scotland
Plus a servant girl.

William and Margaret Hughan appear in no more census returns after 1881...William died in 1882 at East Stonehouse, aged 75 years. His wife Margaret died in 1886, aged 78 years, at East Stonehouse.

Two of their children had predeceased them....Mary Jessie Hughan, their only daughter, died in East Stonehouse in 1862, aged just 13. Her brother Peter died the following year in 1863, aged 18.

Of their two remaining sons, Samuel Chisholm and William James, both married, although only Samuel had any issue.
William married first...in 1868 he married Mary Jane Pillow, who had been born in Pimlico, London.This William is famous throughout the world as a Freemason author, historian and expert in general. Known as "W.J.Hughan", he became an apprentice in the drapery trade in his brother Samuel’s business at East Stonehouse at the age of 15. After completing his apprenticeship, he became a warehouseman at a company of haberdashers in Plymouth. William managed to work himself up to become a joint manager of a wholesale cloth warehouse in Truro. At the age of 24 he was the first Master of the new Mark Lodge in Truro. In 1875 he became Past Grand Master Overseer of the order.

1871 census: Edward Street,St.Marys, Truro.
William J. Hughan/head/married/39/woollen draper warehouseman/born East Stonehouse, Devon.
Mary J. Hugha/wife/31/warehouseman's wife/born Middlesex.
Annie Lowry/servant/unmarried/15/general servant domestic/born Cornwall

1881: Edward Street, Truro.
William J. Hughan/head/married/46/woollen warehouseman/born East Stonehouse
Mary J Hughan/wife/41/ born Pimlico

1891: Castle Terrace, Torquay, Devon
William J. Hughan/head/56/retired warehouse manager/born East Stonehouse
Mary J. Hughan/wife/51/born Pimlico London
Ann Everill/19/servant/general domestic/born Cornwall.

1901: "Dunscore", Torquay, Devon
William J. Hughan/head/60/retired cloth warehouse manager/born East Stonehouse
Mary J. Hughan/wife/61/born Pimlico, London

1911: "Dunscore", Torquay, Devon
William James Hughan/head/70/private means/married 42 years/no children/born east Stonehouse
Mary Jane Hughan/wife/71/ born London, Pimlico
Emma Canniford/servant/51/married 13 years/no children/born Cornwall.

William James Hughan died not long after the 1911 census was taken. He died on May 20, 1911, at Torquay, aged 70. His wife, Mary Jane Hughan, passed away the following year.

Again, as with his famous first cousin once removed, Jessie Wallace Hughan, I will not include vast reams of information about William James Hughan and his exploits in this blog. There are gazillions of hits for his name when it is entered into a search engine...I just wanted to put into perspective where it was that he fitted amongst the Hughan familes of Kirkmabreck.

Of his elder brother Samuel Chisholm Hughan, not much is known by me. He married Catherine Ann Stringnell, daughter of Henry Stringnell, in Whitegate, Cheshire on September 18, 1879, at the age of 40.

1881: 73 Union Street, St. Andrew, Plymouth.
Samuel C. Hughan/head/41/draper's assistant/born Stonehouse
Catherine A. Hughan/wife/28/ born Droxford, Hampshire

1891: 18 Emma Street, East Stonehouse.
Samuel C. Hughan/head/51/draper/born East Stonehouse
Catherine A. Hughan/wife/35/ born Droxford, Hampshire
William C. Hughan/son/9/scholar/born Plymouth
Laura Jones/21/servant

1901: Woodford Villas, Plymouth.
Samuel C.Hughan/head/61/credit draper/own account/born Stonehouse
Catherine A. Hughan/wife/46/born Droxford
William C. Hughan/son/19/student/bron Plymouth.

Samuel Chisholm Hughan died in Devon in 1902, aged 63 years.In the 1911 census, his widow Catherine Hughan and son William were both lodgers at 23 Loveday Road, East Ealing in Middlesex:
Catherine A. Hughan/48/widow/married for 20 years/one child/commercial clerk/born Droxford
William Chisholm Hughan/25/single/born Plymouth
Catherine Hughan died in Brentford, Middlesex, in 1919, aged 67. Her only child, William Chisholm Hughan, married Grace H. Bridge in Brentford, Middlesex, in 1916. They had at least one child- Catherine M.V Hughan was born at Brentford in late 1916.

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Back to the children of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth

Above: Cults Farm House, Garlieston, parish of Sorbie, Wigtownshire, which was the home of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth in the 19th Century.

Despite Peter Hannay Hughan being the fourth son of Peter and Jessie Hughan, he was the son who continued on the running of the family farm at Cults after the death of his father.
Peter Hannay Hughan was born in Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire, in c. 1839, the fifth child and fourth son born to farmer Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth. His early years were spent at Meiklecarse Farm at Minnigaff, then the rest of his life at Cults farm at Garlieston near Sorbie.
At every census return from 1851 to 1901, Peter Hannay Hughan was living at Cults Farmhouse. He had an interest in the local militia, as the following shows:

"4th Wigtownshire Rifle Volunteer Corps.
Hugh Stewart, Esq. to be Lieutenant, vice Hugh Dun Stewart, deceased. Dated 29th October 1866.
Peter Hannay Hughan,gent,to be Ensign, vice Drew, resigned. Dated 29th October 1866" – from THE EDINBURGH GAZETTE, NOVEMBER 9, 1866.

Peter Hughan Senior died in 1877, and as sons William, Samuel and Alexander were all living abroad, Peter Hannay Hughan was named executor of his father's will, with the responsibilities of taking care of the farm, his widowed mother and unmarried siblings who still lived at Cults.
In 1891, Peter Hannay Hughan was head of the household at Cults,living with brother Andrew and sister Annie.

His brother, John Forsyth Hughan, four years his junior, died at Cults in 1879 of T.B., aged 36. Mother, Jessie Forsyth Hughan, died in 1881, followed by Peter's youngest brother Andrew McKeand Hughan in 1894.

In Yorkshire on January 10, 1901, at the age of 68 years, Peter Hughan married 31 year old Elizabeth Taylforth Harper, and took her back to his farm at Cults. They had two children that I can find...

Jessie Forsyth Hughan born Cults, Garlieston, on November 6, 1901, at 5 a.m.

Peter Harper Hughan born October 22, 1903, at Cults, at three o'clock in the afternoon.

Elizabeth Hughan, Peter's wife, died at the age of 46 of cardiac vascular disease, of several months duration. She died at Cults on August 20, 1914, at 10:20 p.m. Her husband Peter was informant on her death certificate, stating that her parents were Samuel Harper, horse dealer, and Mary Harper, M.S. Hall (deceased).
Her children were only aged 13(Jessie) and 10 (Peter). Their father lived a further five years, passing away on June 18, 1919, at Cults, aged 81 years, of 'general debility'. His 18 year old daughter Jessie registered his death.
Jessie Forsyth Hughan married Herbert William Butler. I have found no trace of what happened to Peter Harper Hughan.

6. MARY ANN 'ANNIE' HUGHAN: was born in Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire, in c. 1841.She was known always as 'Annie', and grew up on Cults Farm at Garlieston. Annie never married, and lived most of her life on Cults with her mother and brothers.She is found there on every census return until 1901, when she was visiting with John and Martha Forsyth, presumably relations on her maternal side, at Whithorn, Wigtownshire. Her brother Peter had only married a few months previously..perhaps she was giving the couple some 'space' (even though Peter was almost 70 years old!)
Annie Hughan died on April 2, 1919, at Garlieston, of breast cancer, aged 76 years. Her sister-in-law, Elizabeth Ewart Hughan (wife of Annie's brother William Henry) registered her death.

7. JOHN FORSYTH HUGHAN: was born at Minnigaff, Kirkcudbrightshire, c. 1843, the seventh child and fifth son born to Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth. I had initially believed that John had lived his entire life at Cults Farm, last appearing in the 1871 census return as a 28 year old living with his parents and siblings Peter, Annie and Andrew. The downloading of his will, however, gave evidence that he in fact moved to England and worked for a time as a book keeper in Runcorn, Chestershire, during the 1870s.
In about 1878, a year after his father died, John Hughan contracted phthisis pulmonalis, a term originally used to designate a wasting of the body associated with disease of the lungs. It would have been a terrible way to die...TB seemed to consume people from within with its symptoms of bloody cough, fever, pallor, and long relentless wasting.
John Forsyth Hughan died on March 7, 1879, at Cults farm, aged 36 years. His occupation was 'annuitant', John having benefited from a bequest in his father Peter's will in 1877.
John Forsyth Hughan made his own will on April 18, 1877, whilst living at Wilderspool Terrace, Warrington, Chestershire. His English estate was valued at 1,127pounds, including houses he collected rent from in Trentham Street, Runcorn, and he made his mother, Jessie Hughan, the sole beneficiary and executrix of his will.

8. ANDREW McKEAND HUGHAN: born c. 1848,Minnigaff. Died aged 11 months April 20, 1849. His father Peter placed a memorial inscription in the Creetown Kirkyard...
" By Peter Hughan farmer Meikle Carse in memory of his son Andrew McKeand on 20 April, 1849, aged 11 months."

9. ANDREW McKEAND HUGHAN: The ninth and final child born to Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth, Andrew was named after his brother whose death occurred almost a year to the day before his own birth...the first baby Andrew died April 20, 1849, and his namesake was born April 21, 1850. He was the only one of Peter's and Jessie's children to be born at Cults Farm in Garlieston, his family having taken up the lease and moved there just prior to his birth.
Andrew lived his entire 44 years at Cults, described in various census returns as either "Farmer's son" or, after his father's death, "farmer's brother". In 1891, which was the last census return he appeared in, Andrew was noted as being an 'invalid'. When he died in 1894, it was from a "chronic ulcer of left leg- seven years duration". This means Andrew would have been invalided since about 1887, at the age of 38.
Andrew McKeand Hughan died at Cults Farm on September 6, 1894, at 9:30 P.M. His brother William Henry Hughan, who had returned from Canada to live back in Scotland, registered Andrew's death.

Here ends my knowledge (thus far!!) of the family of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth. Now to turn my attention to his brother, William Hughan...

Newspaper reports of death of William H. Hughan, soldier, 71st Regiment, New York.

I had the above newspaper articles for several years before just this week I positively identified which branch of the Hughan family this poor soldier belonged to.
He was William Henry Hughan, born Collingwood, Victoria, in 1861, the only son of William Henry Hughan and Elizabeth Ewart.He moved with his parents from Australia back to Scotland and then on to Canada, where I lost trace of him after the 1881 census as he didn't return to Scotland with his parents in the 1890s. He doesn't appear in the census returns for 1891 for England, Scotland or Canada, so William may have moved down into the United States where he joined up with the 71st Regiment.
Following is a brief history of the Regiment during the time that William Hughan would have served, as taken from http://dmna.state.ny.us/historic/reghist/spanAm/infantry/71stInf/71stInfMain.htm

"The 71st Infantry Regiment was the first of twelve New York State National Guard infantry regiments that were federalized for service in the Spanish-American War. The 71st Regiment was originally composed of ten companies with 100 men apiece.This regimental structure was changed to a twelve-company format for duty in the Spanish-American War.
The regiment was entirely recruited from New York City and had previously served with distinction during the Civil War, participating in the Gettysburg campaign among others.It also participated in the switchmen’s strike in Buffalo of 1892, and the motorman’s strike of 1895 in Brooklyn. The regiment was mustered into federal service and designated the “71st Regiment Infantry, New York Vols.” on May 10th, 1898.
Early on the morning of May 13th the 71st embarked on transports at Long Island City, bound for Tampa, FL. Due to the suspected presence of Spanish ships in U.S. waters, the troops were unloaded and put on trains, which departed for Lakeland, FL on the 14th, much to the irritation of the officers and men of the 71st. The trip was uneventful and the troops arrived at Lakeland, 35 miles from Tampa on the 17th of May. They immediately set up camp alongside the 2nd Massachusetts and began a routine of drill and maneuver. On May 31st, 1898 the regiment departed their camp at Lakeland via train and headed south to Tampa Heights, where upon arrival the men and equipment were incredibly disorganized by the incompetence of the quartermaster staff requiring much time to sort out the confusion. After one week at Tampa Heights, the 71st entrained for Port Tampa where transports awaited to take the regiment to Cuba. During this time the regiment was attached to the Fifth Army Corp. The 71st Regiment spent over two weeks at sea, putting ashore near Santiago, Cuba during the night of June 23rd, 1898. The regiment splashed ashore at the little town of Siboney, sixteen miles east of Santiago carrying three days rations and 100 rounds of ammunition per man.

On the morning of the 24th, shortly after landing the 71st was ordered to support the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, more commonly known as Roosevelt’s Rough Riders, which had advanced into the hills in pursuit of Siboney’s garrison. The cavalry troopers fighting dismounted, had stumbled into a body of Spanish troops and were hotly engaged in the first army engagement on Cuban soil at Las Guasimas. Much to the disappointment of the men, it was soon apparent that the 1st Cavalry needed no assistance and the 71st was recalled to Siboney. On the 27th of June the 71st Regiment began its march toward Santiago, following the 6th and 16th U.S. Regular Infantry Regiments with which they had been brigaded. The brigade made around five miles on the poor Cuban roads and halted for the night at the town of Sevilla amidst the debris of battle from Las Guasimas. The Spanish had retreated to their fortifications at Santiago and a small well defended town called El Caney, but heavy rains had turned the already poor roads into a bog making immediate pursuit very difficult. The entire brigade was held up for several days until on June 30th it was announced that the units would be moving out early to engage the Spanish army.

On July 1st, 1898 the largest and bloodiest battles of the Cuban campaign were fought for possession of Santiago. Santiago itself sat among a collection of hills and mountains bristling with Spanish fortifications. Over the course of five years the Spanish had built up a system of defensive trenches and blockhouses among the hills that had few rivals. Their defensive line extended for three miles, starting with San Juan Hill in the South and proceeding north in an unbroken line of fortifications terminating at the sea. The 71st and the two regular regiments toiled along the small thin mountain road that led to San Juan Hill having been proceeded by the Rough Riders. The firing along the road was severe and the Spanish troops concealed in the heavy thickets used a smokeless powder, which made their positions very difficult to discern. Their sharpshooters were concealed in many of the tall coconut trees along the path and their artillery from the hills poured fire onto the road, which they knew the U.S. troops had to use.

The fighting for possession of San Juan Hill itself degenerated into a series of successive charges by individual regiments, battalions, and companies. Among the units to reach the top first were the 6th, 13th, 16th, and 24th Regular Infantry Regiments along with Company F of the third battalion of the 71st Regiment. Much of the rest of the 71st was also heavily involved in the fighting sustaining heavy casualties in the face of galling Spanish rifle fire from a system of blockhouses on the right side of the hill. Shortly after the fall of San Juan hill the Spanish launched a heavy counterattack on the captured trenches at night, but they were badly mauled and forced to retire after losing an estimated 3,000 soldiers. The 71st remained in the trenches for the remainder of the fighting at Santiago, conducting the siege duty.

The Spanish garrison at Santiago surrendered on the 14th of July, having been suffering from famine for over two weeks, while simultaneously watching the U.S. army position it’s imposing siege artillery. The Spanish surrendered some 24,000 troops at Santiago; all of whom were to be transported back to Spain. Upon the Spanish capitulation there was little to do other than see to the health of the men, many who were beginning to contract the mosquito born disease Yellow Fever due to the wet climate and two weeks of stagnation at Santiago. The 71st began to suffer fearful attrition not from the Spanish, but from sickness as Yellow Fever and typhoid took root wherever the troops went. On August 2nd the men of the regiment learned that Spain had agreed to all terms laid down by the U.S. government and that the war was over. The 71st remained in Cuba for a couple weeks more, chafing in the heat to return home. On August 22nd the 71st arrived at Camp Wikoff on Long Island and the men began to leave on furlough.

Upon its return to the states the regiment could only muster 350 of its initial 1,000 men. Those soldiers that were not dead were either on furlough or sick and in hospitals across the country. In October the 71st returned to Camp Black and on November 14th, 1898 the regiment was mustered out.

During its tour of duty the 71st lost several hundred of its members. Of these only around 80 men were killed or wounded in the fight for San Juan Hill, with additional casualties being taken on the road to the hill. Most of the regiment’s losses however came from Yellow Fever and other tropical maladies."

After the horrendous conditions and experiences suffered by William Hughan in Cuba, it is no wonder he turned to alcohol for respite after his return to New York. He died, cold and alone on the streets of New York, only 12 days after being mustered out from his regiment.The letter that he carried from his mother, Elizabeth Hughan, back in Scotland was heartbreaking. She wrote to her only son:
"My dear Wille...be careful when you get your money and do not make a mistake in the spending of it. I think that you have suffered such hardships in earning it that it should make you very cautious, indeed."

I wonder if William visited his Aunt, Margaret West Hughan, and cousins Evelyn, Jessie and Marjorie on his return to New York?(His father, William Hughan, was the brother of Samuel Hughan, father of Jessie Hughan and her sisters) And if so, how would they have received him, this soldier who had fought in a vicious war, whilst they were a family of such extreme pacifists? One hopes that if William did visit his kin they would have made him welcome, no matter what their views on war and those men who fought in them.

Finally, from the "History of the 71st Regiment, New York Volunteers. (Chapter taken from New York and the War with Spain:History of the Empire State Regiments by the New York State Historian, 1903.)":

"The Regiment left New York over 1000 strong, a regiment of magnificent,healthy-looking athletes.It paraded on its return less than 350 men, and of these not fifty who could say they had not been seriously ill or that at the present time they were wholly well.Where were the others? Those that were not dead were almost all sick, either in hospitals all over the country or on furloughs at their homes."

"The 71st Regiment, New York Volunteers, in the war with Spain enlisted promptly,recruited quickly, went to the seat of war rapidly and in a patriotic, devoted spirit, did every duty assigned to it cheerfully,obeyed orders implicitly, fought valiantly,suffered heroically and now retires from active service with becoming modesty, confident that it has served its state and country well".

Obituaries Hughan sisters

Above photo: Left to right: Jessie Wallace Hughan, Elizabeth Heywood Wyman, Stella George Stern Perry, and Helen St. Clair Mullan.Original founders on January 2, 1897, of Alpha Omicron Pi, Barnard College of Columbia University in New York City.

Monday, June 14, 2010

Samuel Hughan, 4th child of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth.

Above; Jessie Wallace Hughan, daughter of Samuel Hughan and Margaret West, and grand daughter of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth of Cults Farm, Sorbie, Scotlan.

Samuel Hughan was born on March 1, 1837, at Stonehouse, Devon, and was baptised on April 16 of the same year. Named after his paternal grandfather, Samuel Hughan, who had died in 1835, he was the fourth child born to Peter and Jessie Hughan, following eldest sibling Agnes in 1831 and two brothers, William in 1833 and Alexander in 1835.
Whilst still an infant, Samuel moved with his family back to Scotland. His father Peter had grown up farming with his own father Samuel at Balhasie, near Creetown. He obviously preferred life on the land to the drapery business that he had established with his brother William in Stonehouse, because he returned to Scotland to take up farming at Meiklecarse Farm near Minnigaff.
For the census returns of 1841 and 1851, Samuel was living with his parents and siblings...in 1841 at Meiklecarse Farm, and in 1851 at Cults Farm in Sorbie, which was to remain in the Hughan family for decades.
In 1861 he had moved down to Northern England, where he was residing with his sister, Agnes Hughan McKeand, and her husband and young family in Albion Street, Newcastle Upon Tyne. Samuel was a 24 year old commercial clerk.

In 1866, the following notice appeared in the London Gazette:

"NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership which has for some time been carried on by John Cameron Swan and Samuel Hughan, under the firm of Swan and Hughan, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the trade or business of Merchants and Commission Agents, was this day dissolved by mutual consent. — As witness our hands this 3rd
day of February, 1866.
John Cameron Swan.
Samuel Hughan. 9 Feb 1866

In 1866, aged 29, Samuel Hughan boarded the ship 'Cuba' at Liverpool and sailed to New York, arriving in the city on April 5, 1866.
Two years later, in 1868, Samuel married Margaret West at Brooklyn, New York. The newspaper notice from the Glasgow Herald, published September 17, 1868, read:
"At Brooklyn, United States, on the 1st inst., by the Reverend C.A. Harney, Samuel Hughan, son of Peter Hughan Esq, Cults, Garlieston, Scotland, to Maggie, daughter of the late F.K. West, Esq,".

The book "Notable American women: the modern period : a biographical dictionary, Volume 4" By Barbara Sicherman, Carol Hurd Green, has the following information about Samuel Hughan and Margaret West, taken from the section dealing with their daughter, Jessie Wallace Hughan:

" Her parents were cultured but of modest circumstances.Samuel Hughan, born in England to a Scottish family, came to New York as an importer in 1863 and was at various times a writer, accountant, treasurer and librarian. Margaret Hughan's English, Scottish and French ancestors migrated to the United States in the 17th and 18th Centuries. She became a writer and composer.Both were convinced by Henry George's single tax plan: Margaret Hughan was President of the Brooklyn Women's Single Tax Club, while Samuel Hughan wrote a book on the British land question.Their religious affiliations were successively Presbyterian, Episcopalian, Swedanborgian,and Unitarian." p 354.
Other reports also give Samuel Hughan's date of arrival in the United States as 1863, and this may well be correct. The only record I can find regarding his entry into the country is in 1866, however.
Another book- "Radical pacifism: the War Resisters League and Gandhian nonviolence in America 1915-1963" by Scott H. Bennett- agrees with my finding of 1866:

" Hughan was raised in a stimulating family environment in which independent thought was valued. Both her parents were radicals,and this encouraged her interest in pacifism, politics, economics and feminism. Jessie and her sisters Marjorie and Evelyn all became pacifists.
Hughan's father, Samuel Hughan, emigrated to the United States from England in 1866 and two years later married Margaret Balieff West. Samuel, who held progressive views on gender, converted Margaret to the suffragist position and "encouraged her artistic side to develop." Samuel was a Swedenborgian (a pacifist sect), a single taxer, a suffragist and a vegetarian. He was also a freelance journalist who wrote a study of the British land question that paralleled Henry George's analysis in Progress and Poverty. In 1886 he managed that reformer's New York City mayoralty campaign.
Margaret too was a Henry George devotee.She was also President of the Women's Single Tax Club of Brooklyn. With her husband's support she participated in a literary club, wrote literary pieces and composed music. Margaret abhorred physical violence and corporal punishment and attended closely to her three daughters' "spiritual welfare". Physically fearless, she was known to break up street fights between drunks.On at least one occasion she stopped a peddler from beating his cart horse." page 2.
"...It is likely her father's experiences in England and South America sparked her lifelong interest in international relations and global travel. Her parent's progressive attitude toward gender roles instilled in her the confidence to pursue public goals in a 'man's world'.Especially relevant to her peace activism,her mother taught her to hate violence. This, Hughan later reflected, was perhaps the strongest pacifist influence in my childhood." p 3.

This reference to Samuel Hughan being in South America is interesting, and is the only account I have so far come across that mentions such travels.

From this it can be seen that Samuel Hughan and his wife Margaret were far from "normal" parents for that period. They were progressive, intelligent and nurturing of their daughters' intellects...it is not surprising that they raised a remarkable child such as Jessie Wallace Hughan.

The 1870 U.S Census for Brooklyn reveals the following:

Samuel Hughan/head/white/clerk in store/value of personal estate $500/ born Scotland.
Margaret Hughan/22/white/keeping house/ born New York.
Margaret Boyle/17/white/domestic servant/ born Ireland.

Ten years later, and the family are still residing in Brooklyn, with the addition of two daughters, Evelyn (spelt 'Eveline' in the 1880 census) and Jessie:

Samuel Hughan/white/ 43/ merchant born England/parents both born Scotland.
Margaret Hughan/36/keeping house/ born New York/ father born N Ca; mother M'd
Eveline Hughan/daughter/white/9/born New York/ father born England/ mother born North Carolina
Jessie Hughan/daughter/white/4/born New York/father born England/ mother born North Carolina
Margaret West/white/68/widow/ boarder/ born North Carolina/parents both born Scotland.
Fredericka West/white/39/daughter/single/ boarder/ born New York/parents both born Scotland (Note: latter can't be correct, as Fredrika's mother is Margaret West who has nominated her birthplace as North Carolina)
Edwina West/white/daughter/single/35/boarder/born New York/parents born Scotland

The latter three living with the Hughan family were obviously Samuel's mother-in-law, Margaret McMillan West, and his wife's spinster sisters, Edwina Denison and Fredricka Rebecca West. Margaret West was described as a "cultivated Southerner of Scottish descent".She had been widowed in 1858, and became a boarding house keeper to support her family of daughters who were still living at home- Eliza, Fredericka, Margaret,Edwina, and Lucia. She also had daughters Sarah Louisa, Mary Isabella and Juliana Eudora. In the 1860 U.S census, Margaret McMillan West also had living with her newly-married daughter Juliana and her husband, William McMonnies. William had been born in Whithorn, Wigtownshire, Scotland,in 1818, and emigrated to New York when he was 18. He entered the grain business and made himself a fortune, which was bolstered when he also became an importer of fine English saddlery and cutlery. He was one of the founding members of the Atlantic Yacht Club, and at one stage maintained a private yacht with a crew of 40. Much of his fortune was lost, however, during the Civil War. William and Juliana had three sons and a daughter- David b c. 1861 New York(died young in a tragic boating accident: From the New York Times, July 19, 1887: "Two young men arrived at the Manhansett House, Shelter Island, Saturday afternoon, and registered as D. McMonnies, of Brooklyn, and Charles A. Straub, of New-York. They hired a boat in the evening and went rowing. They rowed into the wake of the steamer Sunshine, and while changing seats the swell upset the boat, and both were drowned. Their bodies were recovered Sunday." ); Frederick William b 1864, New York (famous sculptor and artist); Maggie born c.1866.
Samuel Hughan and Maggie West had four children- three daughters and a son. The daughters- Evelyn, Jessie and Marjorie- all lived long lives, but a baby son did not survive infancy.
I cannot find a census for the United States for 1890, and by the 1900 census return, Samuel Hughan has died and Margaret is living with her three daughters in Brooklyn.

Samuel Hughan died on February 10, 1896, in Brooklyn, New York. The notice as published in the New York Times read as follows:

" HUGHAN: Entered into life on the evening of February 10th,Samuel Hughan, aged 58 years, 11 months and 10 days.
Funeral services will be held at his home, 248 7th Avenue, Brooklyn, Wednesday evening, February 12th. English and Scotch papers please copy." - New York Times, 12 February, 1896.

1900 United States Census: Brooklyn Ward 23, Kings, New York.
Margaret Hughan/head/ 56/ born Jun 1843, New York/white/ widow/father born Maryland, mother born North Carolina/ total number of children 4; number living children:3
Eveline Hughan/daughter/white/single/29/born March 1871, New York/ mother born New York/father born England.
Jessie Hughan/daughter/25/white/single/born December 1874, New York/mother born New York; father born England.
Marjory Hughan/daughter/white/single/11/ born April 1881, New York/father born England, mother born New York.
George Streat/boarder/white/single/25/born June 1874, New York/both parents born New York.

In 1910, the widowed Margaret West Hughan was still living in Brooklyn with her three unmarried daughters:

Margaret W. Hughan/head/white/66/ widow/ four children born; three living; born New York, father born Maryland; mother born North Carolina/occupation own income
Evelyn W. Hughan/ daughter/white/39/single/born New York/father born Scot.england/mother born New York/occupation stenographer, publishing company
Jessie w. Hughan/daughter/white/34/single/born New York/father born Scot. England; mother born New York/occupation teacher, private school
Ethel M. Hughan/daughter/white/single/28/born New York/father born Scot. England; mother born New York/ occupation: teacher/ private school

Note: Although 'officially' named Ethel Marjorie Hughan, the youngest daughter of Samuel and Margaret was known as 'Marjorie'.

Youngest daughter Marjorie Hughan was the only one of the three Hughan girls to marry. On September 5, 1910, Ethel Marjorie Hughan married Frederick Frye Rockwell. Marjorie had been working as a school teacher to this point. She and Frederick had four children: Wallace Hughan Rockwell, Frederick Frye Rockwell, Donald West Rockwell and Margaret Evelyn Rockwell(Margaret, a poet and doll-artist, married Roy Finch, a scholar and professor of philosophy and religion, and their daughter Annie, born 1957, is a well-known American poet and author).

The other two sisters remained living at home with their mother until her death in January 1921. The 1921 census return had the following details about their Brooklyn household:

Brooklyn Assembly District 11, Kings, New York.
Margaret W. Hughan/head/76/ born New York/widowed/white/born New York/ parents both born United States/ home rented/
Evelyn W. Hughan/daughter/single/white/45/born New York/father born Scotland; mother born New York.
Jessie W. Hughan/daughter/single/white/43/born New York/father born Scotland;mother born New York.

Margaret West Hughan's death notice in the New York Times read:
"HUGHAN: Margaret West, widow of Samuel Hughan, daughter of Fredrick R. and Margaret McMillan West, on January 26 at her home, 378 Grand Avenue, Brooklyn. Services on Friday in Unity Church, Irving Place and Gates Avenue at 2 p.m. Interment private."
-New York Times, January 27, 1921.

"Mrs. Margaret West Hughan, widow of Samuel Hughan, a newspaper writer and an active worker in the Unity Unitarian Church in Brooklyn, died on Wednesday at her home, 378 Grand Avenue, Brooklyn. Mrs Hughan was an aunt of Frederick W. MacMonnies, the sculptor."

I feel as though there is no need to include a great deal about the life of Jessie Wallace Hughan-she is a very well-known American pacifist and teacher, and there is vast amounts of information available about her on the internet. I will therefore just include a very small biography on the lives of each of the Hughan sisters to conclude this section on Samuel Hughan.

Issue of Samuel Hughan and Margaret West:

1. EVELYN WEST HUGHAN: born March 1871, Brooklyn, New York.With her sister Jessie Wallace Hughan, Evelyn was a suffragist, socialist and pacifist. She never married. Unlike her sisters who entered the teaching profession, Evelyn rose in the publishing world, becoming the director of the Foreign Department of the big publisher Ginn & Co.
Evelyn lived with her mother and sister Jessie until the former's death in 1921. The sisters then shared a home in Manhatten. Evelyn West Hughan died in December, 1947, aged 76. The New York times reported as follows:
"MISS HUGHAN DIES. Miss Evelyn West Hughan, of 27 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn, retired head of the foreign department of Ginn & Co,textbook publishers, and for many years active in the socialist party and pacifist movement, died Friday in the Wood Nursing Home, Brooklyn, at the age of 76." -New York Times,December 14, 1947.

2. JESSIE WALLACE HUGHAN:born Christmas Day, 1874. She was most well known as an American educator, a socialist activist, and a radical pacifist. During her college days she was one of four co-founders of Alpha Omicron Pi, a national sorority for university women. She also was a founder and the first Secretary of the War Resisters League, established in 1923. For over two decades, she was a perennial candidate for political office on the ticket of the Socialist Party of America in her home state of New York.
Education: (from Wikipedia):Jessie attended grammar school on Staten Island and then went on to Northfield Seminary,a theologically liberal Unitarian college preparatory school for girls located in Northfield, Massachusetts.

She enrolled at Barnard College in New York City in 1894. In January 1897 she co-founded there with three other students the international sorority Alpha Omicron Pi. In 1898 she graduated, earning her A.B. degree, for which she authored an unpublished senior thesis on "Recent Theories of Profits." An excellent student, Jessie was a member of Phi Beta Kappa, a national honorary society.

After graduation from Barnard, Jessie enrolled in Columbia University, also located in New York City. There Hughan earned her Masters of Arts degree in 1899, writing a thesis entitled "The Place of Henry George in Economics," and her Ph.D. in 1910. Her dissertation was adapted by Columbia University Press and published in book form as The Present Status of Socialism in America, for which the prominent British-born socialist John Spargo wrote the introduction. The book was later reissued by a commercial publisher under a slightly revised title.

Jessie Hughan made her professional career as an educator, teaching in a series of public and private schools following her graduation from Columbia with her A.M. degree in 1899.She first taught in schools in Naugatuck, Connecticut and White Plains, New York before returning to New York City in the early 1900s to complete her doctorate.Following her graduate work, she taught in a number of high schools throughout New York City, primarily in Brooklyn. In the 1920s, Hughan was in charge of the English Department at Textile High School, a position which she retained until her retirement from the profession in 1945.
From "Notable American Woman:the Modern period" by Barbara Sicherman and Carol Hurd Green:
" A tall woman with prominent features and bobbed hair,Hughan for many years helped care for her widowed mother and contributed to the support of her sister's four children.Following WW2 and her retirement from the school system in 1945, she continued to be active in the War Resisters League. In April 1953, she died at her Manhatten home of arteriosclerotic heart disease."

3. ETHEL MARJORIE HUGHAN: born April 1881, Brooklyn, New York. Like her sisters was extremely well-educated, and after graduation from Columbia University became a teacher like her elder sister Jessie. Known always as 'Marjorie', she married Frederick Frye Rockwell in September 1910, and with him had four children- Wallace Hughan Rockwell, Frederick Frye Rockwell, Donald West Rockwell and Margaret Evelyn Rockwell. Frederick was a prolific author of gardening books and articles. He and Marjorie divorced, and he later remarried Esther Grayson, who whom he co-wrote several gardening books.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

Children of Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth

Peter and Jessie Hughan had nine children, eight of whom survived into adulthood. Only two of their children were daughters- Agnes, their eldest child, died aged only 31 years after marrying and having five sons, and Marianne, known as 'Annie' never married and lived her life in Sorbie.
Of their seven sons, one died in infancy, two emigrated to America, two died in Sorbie without marrying and two married and had children.
Their lives are briefly covered as follows:

1. AGNES JANE HUGHAN: Born July 8, 1831; baptised September 11, 1831, at East Stonehouse, Devon. Married draper James McKeand in 1852. Had five sons:
*James Arthur McKeand born Scotland, c.1853.
*Peter Alfred McKeand b c. 1856 died 1859.
*William Henry Hughan McKeand born and died 1857
*Andrew Ernest McKeand born 1859, Newcastle On Tyne.
*Alexander Wallace Hughan McKeand born and died 1862.

Agnes died January 4, 1862, in Newcastle Upon Tyne, aged 31 years.She may have died from causes related to childbirth, as her fifth son, Alexander Wallace Hughan McKeand, was born and also died in 1862.

2. WILLIAM HENRY HUGHAN: Born February 13, 1833, at Stonehouse, Devon, and baptised on April 14, 1833. William was of a wandering nature, and throughout his life lived in Minnigaff, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Australia, Manitoba in Canada and then his last years back home in his native Scotland.
In the 1851 census William was an 18 year old apprentice draper in Newcastle Upon Tyne in England. Five years later in 1856 he married Elizabeth Ewart in the Sunderland district of Durham. They were married on August 26, 1856, at Monkwearmouth. In early 1859, at Newcastle Upon Tyne, their first child, a daughter named Florence, was born.
The couple travelled to Australia, where their second child, a son named William Henry Hughan, was born in 1861. They must not have found the country to their liking, because by 1864 they were back in Scotland for the birth of their second daughter.
Jessie Margaret Hughan was born at Newton Stewart on November 2, 1864, at 3:45 a.m. Her parents were recorded as William Henry Hughan, Post Master, and Lizzie Hughan M.S. Ewart.

In 1871, the family of William Hughan were living at Morning Side, Eccles Old Road, Pendleton, Salford, England.
William Henry Hughan/head/38/manufacturer employing 4 men/ born Plymouth, Devonshire
Elizabeth Ewart Hughan/wife/35/ born Sunderland, Durham.
Florence Hughan/daughter/ 12/ scholar/ born Newcastle Upon Tyne
William Henry Hughan/6/son/ scholar/ born Melbourne Australia
Jessie Margaret Hughan/daughter/6/ scholar/ born Scotland
Plus one servant.
I can find no other children recorded to the couple. The family appears in the 1881 Canadian Census, having emigrated on the 'S.S. Peruvian' in 1880. The ship arrived in Quebec on August 21, 1880, with William Henry, Lizzie and two of their children, William and Jessie, on board. I cannot find eldest daughter Florence-she would have been 21 years old, and so could easily have married. I can't, however, locate a marriage or death for her in either the English or Scottish records....she is a mystery!

1881: Winnipeg, Selkirk, Manitoba.
William H. Hughan/ 48/ married/born in England of Scottish ethnicity/Presbyterian/ Librarian
Elizabeth Hughan/46/ born England of Scottish ethnicity/ Presbyterian
William H. Hughan/20/ born in Australia of Scottish ethnicity/ Presbyterian/ farmer
Jessie M. Hughan/16/ born Scotland of Scottish ethnicity/ Presbyterian.

I can't for the life of me find the family in 1891 census returns of Scotland, England, Canada or the U.S.

William Henry Hughan Senior was a very scientific man, and took out several patents on different ideas that he had constructed. One particular interest was an early form of recycling waste, and he was involved with the Corporation of Salford in the 1870s in a business arrangement by which he collected the "night soil and ashes" from the district in order to treat and re-use it as a form of fertilizer.
Following is a description from "Sewage Treatment, Purification, and Utilization: A Practical Manual" by J.W. Slater:
"W.H. Hughan. 1870. uses sewage natural phosphates, treated with dilute acids, diluted with urine and mixed with night soil, along with the cement indicated in his former patent, No 2883." And also
" W.H. Hughan. 1874. Treats the sewage with an "antiseptic" made of Portland cement,sulphates of soda, magnesia and potash mixed in oil, preferably mineral oil, and then precipitates with a mixture of Portland cement,fluorspar and oil.The effluent is filtered, and the precipitate with the residue from the filtration is mixed with hot superphosphate. The "antiseptic" may also be made from seaweed, clay and soda waste treated with sulphuric acid."

The Glasgow Herald of 17 February 1872 reported:
"The Huano Manure Company Limited have issued their prospectus, inviting subscriptions for 120,000 pounds in 12,000 shares as a first issue of a proposed capital of 400,000 pounds in 40,000 shares.
The company is formed to purchase from Mr W.H. Hughan, patent manure manufacturer, of Salford, Manchester, the contract which he has with the Corporation of Salford in Lancashire for taking the night soil and ashes, collected in the Salford district under their improved sanitary system, to provide additional works, to purchase and extend the manure works already erected by him, on land granted by the Corporation for that purpose, and to carry on the business; and also to acquire his English patents for treating night soil, sewage and other matters by cementation, by means of and in conjunction with superphosphate manufacture, for the production of manure known as "Huano Manure".
As early as September 1868, William was applying for a patent for his sewage treatment:
"2283: William Henry Hughan of Newton Stewart, North Britain. Post Master and Guano and Seed Merchant, for an invention for:-"Improvements in the treatment of night soil, sewage and other like refuse matters for the purpose of deodorising and converting the same into manure." The object of this invention is accomplished by the process of cementation, and what I claim to have discovered is the application of "Portland" or other suitable cement in the setting process to deodorise (where necessary) and solidify night soil, sewage, filth, in general refuse, blood, offal, urinary and beast products of farm steadings, sludge and other refuse of manufactories, fish and the like. The primary object of this discovery is to utilize night soil and the contents of sewers and other like refuse matter found in large cities and towns(which substances are known to be rich in ammonia, phosphoric acid, magnesia, potash, soda, and which at present poison the air and water, and to transform them into a valuable and portable substance or manure for agricultural purposes." - From the "Descriptive Index Of Patents Applied For And Patents Granted for the Quarter Ending 31st March 1868."

I would love to know what became of this endeavour. Whilst in Australia in 1860,William applied for two patents concerning Portland cement: W H Hughan made two patent applications, of which one was granted, for a cement using clay and quartz tailings. The other, for 'Hughan's Portland Cement', was refused in 1861, probably because it used magnesian clay and was similar to a patent previously applied for by a man named Edwards.
William Henry Hughan was later to obtain a British patent for the use of Portland, Roman and other cements in deodorizing works. References: Great Britain, patent no 2893 to W H Hughan, 19 September 1868. Also related patents, no 67, 8 January 1879; no 3060, 30 November 1871; no 2700, 20 August 1873; no 1959, 5 June 1874.

In January 1882, William Hughan applied for a patent in Canada:
" Patent: 14545. year 01/01/1882.
Title: Improvements in the manufacture of hydraulic cements.
Name: William H. Hughan, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Granted: 4 May, 1882."
Source: Library & Archives, Canada.

Whilst William Hughan was a scientific man, his wife Lizzie was of a more artistic nature. She published a small book of poetry in 1866 entitled "Estelle, And Other Poems" by Elizabeth Ewart Hughan.

Although I can't locate William and his family in the census returns of 1891, he was definitely back in Scotland by September of 1894 as he was the informant on the death certificate of his youngest brother, Andrew Mckeand Hughan.
The family was still in Canada in 1889, as daughter Jessie Margaret was married there:
"PORRIT-HUGHAN: At Manitoba College, on the 29th of January, by the Reverend Dr. Bryce, Joseph Eyre Porrit, of Armley Hill, Trehern, Manitoba, son of Mr. William Henry Porrit, The Dell, Hertfordshire, England, to Jessie Margaret, daughter of Mr. William Henry Hughan, Westwood, Winnepeg, Manitoba."
There was also mention in a report from the Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba that William Henry Hughan was their librarian, and was elected Life Member when he retired from the position. It further noted that in 1888 he was paid a salary of $392 for acting as librarian for the public library.

1901: Culderry Row, Sorbie.
William H. Hughan/head/68/ agent for soap and ___??/ born England
Elizabeth E Hughan/wife/ 65/ born England.

William Henry Hughan Senior died at Garliestown, Sorbie on June 6, 1904, between 7 and 8 a.m. His sister Annie Hughan registered the event the following day, and stated that her brother was a 71 year old Commission Agent, married to Elizabeth Ewart. There was no cause of death given on the original certificate, but an addition was made on 16 June, 1904:

" Register of Corrected Entries for the parish of Sorbie in the County of Wigtown.
The following report of result of Precognition has been received touching the death of William Henry Hughan, registered under No. 13 in the Register Book of Deaths for the year 1904:-
Name, age and Sex: William Henry Hughan, 71 years, male.
When and where died: About 7:30 a.m on the 6th June 1904 within his dwelling house in the Crescent, Garliestown, Sorbie parish, Wigstownshire.
Cause of Death: Suffocation from drowning momentary. Gilbert Aitken Welsh, M.D. Garliestown."
Drowning inside your own house??? The old fellow must have been in the bath, but what is the meaning of the 'momentary' notation? How can you 'momentarily' suffocate if the end result is death? Very strange!

Elizabeth "Lizzie" Ewart Hughan lived on for more than twenty years after her husband's death. She died at the age of 91, on January 7, 1927, at Garliestown. Her cause of death was 'senility, senile dementia 1 1/2 months; cardiac asthenia.(Definition: Asthenia: Weakness. Lack of energy and strength. Loss of strength) Her death was registered by a nurse, Mary McKenzie, who stated that Lizzie's parents were John Ewart, Estate Agent, and Elizabeth Pickergill.

3. ALEXANDER WALLACE HUGHAN: was born at Stonehouse, Devonshire, on February 18, 1835, the third child and second son of Peter Hughan, draper, and Jessie Forsyth. He was baptised at Stonehouse on April 12, 1835.
When still a small boy, Alexander moved back to his parents' native Scotland, where his father took up farming. In the 1841 census the Hughans were farming at Meiklecarse Farm at Minngafff, Kirkcudbrightshire. By 1851 they had moved to Cults Farm in the parish of Sorbie, Wigtownshire.
On October 24, 1859, the "Caledonian Mercury & Daily Express" reported:
"Mr. Alexander W. Hughan has been appointed Principal Coast Officer at Port William, Wigtown."
The 1861 census found 26 year old Alexander back in England, living as a 'boarder and lodger' at 15 Virginia Street, Liverpool, and working as a Custom House Officer, 15th Class.

At some stage Alexander Hughan emigrated to America. His brother Samuel did likewise, sailing on the ship 'Cuba' and arriving in New York in 1866. I can't find Alexander on a shipping list, nor can I locate him in any of the 1870 or 1871 census returns.
He does, however, appear in the 1880 U.S Census return:
Forty five year old Alexander Hughan was living at Oakland, California, and earning his living as a cigar dealer.He was single,born England, and incorrectly stated that his parents were both born in England. Sharing his residence was another cigar dealer, Thomas Todd,43, of Scotland.

Alexander Wallace Hughan died in Oakland, California, on April 14, 1888, aged 53 years.

Saturday, June 12, 2010

Peter Hughan, son of Samuel Hughan and Jessie McKie.

Above: Entry from the Kirkmabreck Parish Register that shows that Peter Hughan was baptised on October 30, 1804, the elder of two sons born to Samuel Hughan and Mary McKie of Balhasie near Creetown.
Peter married Jessie Forsyth of Kirkcowan, Wigtownshire,c. 1830. A marriage entry has not been loctaed, but their first child was born in 1831, so a marriage c. 1830 is likely.
Jessie Forsyth was baptised in Kirkcowan on April 11, 1805, one of twelve children born to Alexander Forsyth and his wife Agnes Martin. Alexander was a farmer of more than 1,000 acres at Caldarroch, Kirkcowan. His children were:
Margaret Forsyth baptised January 12, 1801, Kirkcowan
Alexander Forsyth: baptised February 1, 1803, Kirkcowan. Died 1818 aged 14 years.
Jessie Forsyth: baptised April 11, 1805, Kirkcowan.
Agnes Forsyth: baptised January 23, 1807, Kirkcowan. Died 1846 aged 39.
Mary Forsyth: baptised January 12, 1809, Kirkcowan.
Isobella Forsyth: baptised November 20, 1810, Kirkcowan.
John Forsyth: baptised c. 1813, Kirkcowan. Died aged 7 in 1820.
William Hamilton Forsyth: baptised August 26, 1814, Kirkcowan.
Jane Forsyth: baptised August 10, 1816, Kirkcowan.
Helen Forsyth: baptised February 23, 1819, Kirkcowan.
Alexander McGeoch Forsyth: baptised June 12, 1821, Kirkcowan.
John Forsyth: baptised January 31, 1824, Kirkcowan.

Alexander and his wife Agnes were both still alive at the time of the 1851 census.Alexander was 75 and Agnes was 72, and both were still living at Caldarroch Farm with their son William the only one of their large family still iving at home.
Alexander Forsyth died on June 7, 1855, in his 80th year. He was widowed at the time, so Agnes must have died between 1851 and 1855. His death certificate stated that he was the son of Alexander Forsyth,farmer, and Jannet McGeoch. He died of 'gradual decay and old age' at Grennan, Glasserton, and was buried in Kirkcowan Kirkyard.
Soon after their marriage, Peter Hughan and Jessie Forsyth moved down into England, where they settles at East Stonehouse, Devon, and began to raise a family. Peter's brother, William Hughan, also moved to the town of Stonehouse, and the brothers set up a drapery business.
Four children were born to Peter and Jessie while they lived at Stonehouse- Agnes Jane in 1831; William Henry in 1833; Alexander Wallace in 1835 and finally Samuel in 1837.
Their next child, Peter Hannay Hughan, was born in Minnigaff in 1839, indicating that the family must have moved back to Scotland between 1837 and 1839. Peter became a farmer at Meikle Carse Farm near Minnigaff, whilst his brother William remained at East Stonehouse for the rest of his life.

1841 census: Meiklecarse Farmhouse.
Peter Hughan/36/farmer/ born in Kirkcudbrightshire.
Jessie Hughan/36/ not born in Kircudbrightshire.
Agnes Hughan/9/ born in England.
William Hughan/8/ born in England.
Alexander Hughan/6/born in England
Samuel Hughan/4/born in England.
Peter Hughan/2/ born in Kirkcudbright
Mary Ann Hughan/ 7 months/ born in Kirkcudbrightshire.
Mary Dixon/governess/20/ born in Kirkcudbrightshire
Mary Cloy/20/female servant/ not born in KCB
Agnes Henderson/15/female servant/born in KCB
Alexander Forsyth/19/student in divinity/ nor born KCB (this was Jessie Hughan's brother)

By 1851, Peter Hughan had moved to Cults farm at Sorbie in Wigtownshire.
Cults farm, Sorbie, Wigtown.
Peter Hughan/head/46/ farming 300 acres employing 12 men/ born Kirkmabreck
Jessie Hugham/ wife/ born Kirkcowan
Alexander Hughan/son/16/ scholar/ born England
Samuel Hughan/14/son/scholar/born England
Peter Hughan/son/12/scholar/born Kirkmabreck
Mary Ann Hughan/daughter/10/scholar/born kirkmabreck
John Hughan/son/8/scholar/born Kirkmabreck
Andrew Hughan/son/ 11 months/ born Sorbie
Plus a dairy maid, a cook, a nurse and a farm servant.

Their eldest son, 18 year old William Henry Hughan, was missing from the family group in the 1851 census because he was living in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne with the McKeand family. Head of the family was Scotsman Andrew McKeand, a draper employing three men, including William Hughan as an apprentice.William's sister, Agnes Hughan, was also staying with the family as a visitor. Aged 19, she was classified as a 'farmer's daughter'.

Peter's son, Andrew Hughan, had died at Meiklecarse in April of 1849, aged only 11 months. When his wife Jessie gave birth to her final child at Cults, Sorbie, on 21 April, 1850, just one day after the first anniversary of their baby Andrew's death, they decided to name the new child after his brother-Andrew McKeand Hughan.

In 1861,the family was still farming Cults farm:
Cults Farmhouse, Sorbie.
Peter Hughan/head/56/ farmer of 389 acres employing 14 labourers and 4 boys/born Kirkmabreck
Jessie Hughan/wife/56/ born Kirkcowan
Peter H. Hughan/son/single/22/ born Creetown
Marianne Hughan/daughter/20/born Minnigaff
John F. Hughan/son/18/born Minnigaff
Andrew McK Hughan/son/10/scholar/born Sorbie.
Plus two female domestic servants.

Peter Hughan appears in a census return for the last time in 1871;
Cults farm, Sorbie.
Peter Hughan/head/66/farmer of 389 acres of which 347 is arable, employing nine women, four men and three boys/ born Kirkmabreck
Jessie Hughan/wife/65/ farmer's wife/ born Kirkcowan
Peter Hannay Hughan/32/single/farmer's son/born Minnigaff
Annie Hughan/daughter/single/30/ farmer's daughter/ born Minnigaff
Andrew Mckeand Hughan/son/20/farmer's son/born Sorbie
Plus a cook, a domestic servant and a farm servant.

Two of Peter's sons, Samuel and Alexander Wallace, had emigrated to America and established lives there.Daughter Agnes had married draper James Mckeand and raised a family in Newcastle On Tyne. Son William Henry Hughan moved around looking for his place in the world...he lived in Newcastle, emigrated for a short time to Australia then returned to Scotland before emigrating to Manitoba, Canada.

That only left sons Peter Hannay, John Forsyth and Andrew Mckeand living in Wigtownshire at the time of Peter Hughan's death. He died at Cults, Sorbie, of heart disease on March 9, 1877, aged 72 years.
Son John Forsyth Hughan died two years later of phthisis pulmonalis (T.B.).He died at Cults on March 7, 1879, and his occupation was given as 'annuitant', indicating that he was living on benefits received from his father's will.
Peter Hughan's will was quite comprehensive. It began with an inventory of his goods and assets as compiled by his son, Peter Hannah Hughan, who had taken over the reins at Cults Farm after his father's death:

Inventory of the Personal estate wheresoever situated of Peter Hughan, farmer, Cults, in the Parish of Sorbie, who died there on the ninth day of March, 1877.
1. Personal Property.
1. Cash in the house at date of death 3 pounds 10 shillings
2. Household furniture, silver, plate and other effects in the deceased's house conform to appraisement by William Thomson, auctioneer and appraiser, Wigtown. 177 pounds 2 shillings 6 pence

3. Stock, crop, and implements on the farm of Cults which belonged to the deceased 2036 pounds 18 shillings 6 pence.

4. Balance of price of oats sold at Whitehaven but which was not received at date of death 8 pounds

5.Value of seventy bolls of oats sent to Liverpool but not sold at date of death, at 32 shillings per boll 112 pounds

6. Seventy pounds of the capital stock of the Portpatrick Railway Company-value at date of oath to inventory 90 pounds per cent 63 pounds; dividend declared since date of death 1 pound 4 shillings 6 pence Total: 64 pounds 4 shillings 6 pence.

7. Five shares in the Wigtownshire Railway Company at the price of 2 pounds 10 shillings at the date of oath to date of oath to Inventory 12 pounds 10 shillings.

8. Amount of sums advanced by the deceased to his son Alexander Wallace Hughan residing in New York 73 pounds 10 shillings
Interest thereon to date of death 4 pounds 10 shillings 2 pence.
To date of oath to inventory 78 pounds 12 shillings 5 pence

Note: Although the said Alexander Wallace Hughan has gone abroad his debt is given up as Scotch estate because by the Deceased's Settlement this debt must be paid before the debtor receives any share of deceased's estate.

9. Amount of sums advanced by the deceased to his son Samuel Hughan residing in New York 265 pounds 15 shillings 4 pence.
Note: Although the said Samuel Hughan has gone abroad his debt is given up as Scotch estate because by the deceased's Settlement this debt must be paid before the debtor receives any share of the deceased's estate.


1. Amount of
advances in loan by the deceased to his son William Henry Hughan residing in Newcastle On Tyne 317 pounds 17 shillings 1 pence.

2. Further sums advance by the deceased to the said William Henry Hughan in payments of Premiums of Assurance on Policy number 6137 with the English and Scottish Law Life Co on the life of the said William Henry Hughan 502 pounds 18 shillings 6 p
NOTE: The above policy was assigned by the said William Henry Hughan to the deceased in security of these advances but as the deceased held no other security other than the said policy this debt is valued at the surrender value of the policy being 161 pounds and 5 shillings

3. Sum advanced in loan by the deceased to his son John Forsyth Hughan 600 pounds
Interest thereon to date of death 7 pound 10 shillings
Interest to date of oath to inventory 5 pounds Total: 612 pounds 10 shillings

Total amount of personal estate: 3849 pounds 18 shillings 4 pence.

I, Peter Hughan, farmer, in Cults in the parish of Sorbie county of Wigtown having resolved to execute the present settlement in order to settle my affairs at my death do hereby give, grant , assign and dispond, convey and make over to and in favour of Mrs Jessie Forsyth or Hughan my wife, Peter Hannay Hughan my son presently residing with me, William Hughan residing at Stonehouse near Plymouth my brother, Andrew McKeand Esq of Airlies and John McMaster Esq formerly residing at Cairnryan, presently residing at Cults aforesaid and the acceptors or acceptor and survivors or survivor of them as Trustees or Trustee for the purposes aforementioned.
All and sundry lands and heritages presently belonging or which shall belong to me at the time of my death, debts heritable and moveable now due or which shall be due to me at the time of my death And I nominate and appoint my said Trustees to be my Executors.
But declaring that these presents are granted in Trust for the following purposes viz
Firs. For payment of all my just and lawful debts and funeral expenses and the expenses of carrying these presents into effect.
Second: I appoint and direct my Trustees at my death to deliver over to my son William Henry Hughan my gold watch and appendages.
Third: In the event of my death during the currency of the present leases of Cults (which although granted in favour of myself and my two sons William Henry and Peter for political purposes, belongs to myself)I appoint my said trustees to carry on said lease until the end thereof, and I direct my said son Peter Hannay Hughan to act, in that event, as manager therein under his mother so long as she survives.
Fourth: In the event of my said wife dying during the currency of the present lease of Cults then I appoint and direct my said son Peter Hannay Hughan to manage and carry on the farm until the termination of the lease thereof when my said Trustees shall pay or allow him in accounting with them the sum of one thousand pounds and that in full of any sum he can claim as salary or otherwise for his services on said farm until the end of said lease, and I declare that this sum is over and above any sums paid or allowed to him by me for clothing and pocketmoney.
Fifth: In the event of my said wife being alive at the expiring of the present Lease of the farm of Cults I recommend my said son Peter Hannay Hughan to take a new lease of said farm if he can do so on advantageous terms in his own name and if he does so then the stock, crops and implements of husbandry on the farm at the end of the present lease shall be valued by an appraiser to be mutually chosen by my said trustees and him, and he my said son Peter Hannay Hughan shall during his mother's lifetime pay to her or to my said Trustees for her behoof interest on the amount or value of said stock, crop and implements under deduction of the sum to be paid or allowed to him by the preceeding article of this Trust at the rate of five per cent per annum and my said wife shall further be entitled to the liferent of my whole household furniture, plate, bed and table linen in my house at my death as well as the liferent of my whole other means and estate.
Sixth: At the date of the death of my said wife or at the termination of the present lease of Cults whichever of these events shall last happen I direct and appoint my said Trustees to realise my whole estate and effects including the sums that may be due by my son Peter Hannay Hughan for the value of the said stock,crop and implements of husbandry, with the exception of the Policy of Assurance hereinafter mentioned and to pay and divide the whole residue and remainder thereof as follows: First, to pay a legacy of two hundred pounds sterling to each of my children Marianne otherwise Annie Hughan and Andrew McKeand Hughan; also to pay a legacy of one hundred pounds sterling to James Arthur Mckeand and Andrew Ernest McKeand my grandsons; but declaring that the legacy to Marianne or Annie Hughan shall lapse in the event of her being married before the said period of division shall have arrived, and in that case her legacy shall form part of the residue of my estate.
Second, I direct and appoint my Trustees to set aside such a portion of the capital of the residue of my estate, the interest of which shall be sufficient to pay the half yearly premuims due on the Policy of Assurance on the life of my son William Henry Hughan with the English and Scottish Law Life Assurance Association Number 1137 assigned to me and to pay the same until the death of the said William Henry Hughan.
Third, after paying the said legacies and setting a capital sum aside as aforesaid, I direct and appoint my Trustees to divide the residue equally in seven shares among my surviving children: William Henry Hughan, Alexander Wallace Hughan, Samuel Hughan, Peter Hannay Hughan,Marianne otherwise Annie Hughan, John Forsyth Hughan and Andrew McKeand Hughan, but declaring that in the event of either of my said sons William Henry Hughan, Alexander Wallace Hughan or Samuel Hughan not having at the present period of said interim division paid the sums which I may have advanced to each of them respectively, or for which I have become security for them or either of them then and in that event such son not so paying shall not receive any portion of said interim division of my estate unless his seventh share shall exceed the amount of his debt in which case each of them shall receive the sum by which his said seventh share exceeds the amount of their respective debts.
Seventh; Upon the death of the said William Henry Hughan and on the Trustees realising the proceeds of said Policy of Assurance on his life I direct and appoint my said Trustees to ascertain the amount of the premiums and interest thereon paid by me and them on said policy and to pay the difference if any by which the sum in said policy exceeds the amount so ascertained as aforesaid to the children of the said William Henry Hughan and thereafter to divide the amount so ascertained as aforesaid or the free proceeds of the said policy in the event of the sums or amount so ascertained exceeding the sums in said policy and also the capital sum set aside to meet the premiums on said policy among my said children in the same way and manner as is hereinbefore provieded for.
That the children of the said William Henry Hughan shall receive the share (if any) which would have fallen to him had he been alive.
And I reserve my own liferent and power to alter or revoke these presents and I revoke all former settlements and wills executed by me .
Signed: 26 February 1876.
Witnessed: William Hughan, dairyman residing at Cults; William Hawthorn, Town Clerk, Wigtown.
Followed: Letter of Declaration by William Hughan of Stonehouse, 27 April, 1877. I decline the office of Trustee and Executor conferred on me by the Trust Disposition and Settlement of Peter Hughan, farmer, Cults, in the Parish of Sorbie dated 26 February 1876. Signed : William Hughan.

1881: Cults Farm, Sorbie.
Peter H. Hughan/ head/ 42/ unmarried/ Farmer Of 389 Acres Of Which 345 Arable Employing 6 men 4 Girls 4 Women & 2 Boys/ born Creetown.
Jessie Hughan/mother/75/ widow/born Kirkcowan
Annie Hughan/daughter/unmarried/born Minnigaff
Andrew McK Hughan/brother/30/unmarried/farmer's brother/born Sorbie
Ann Wild/visitor/72/annuitant/ born Garlieston, Wigtownshire
Plus two servants and a shepherd.

Jessie Forsyth Hughan died on December 1, 1881, at her Cults Farm, aged 76. Her cause of death was heart disease, seven weeks duration. Jessie's family erected a large granite obelisk in the Sorbie Kirkyard for herself and other family members:

"In Loving Memory of PETER HUGHAN born at Balhasie near Creetown October 30, 1804, died at Cults march 9, 1887. "Waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ"-1st Cor' chL:V7. Also of his daughter AGNES JANE MCKEAND who was interred at Elswick Cemetery, Newcastle, on January 4, 1862, aged 31 years.
South Side: Also of his wife JESSIE FORSYTH died 1st December 1881 aged 76 years.
Also of their son JOHN FORSYTH HUGHAN died 7th March, 1879, aged 36 years.
Also of their son ALEXANDER WALLACE HUGHAN died at Oakland, California, 14th April, 1888.
North Side: In loving memory of PETER HANNAY HUGHAN of 'Cults', died June 18, 1919, aged 80 years. Also his wife Elizabeth Taylforth Hughan died August 20, 1914 aged 46 years."

Margaret Hook, mother of Thomas Hughan's two daughters

At last... after years of pondering the mystery of who was the mother of Thomas Hughan's two natural daughters, Jane and Margaret, the a...